- 2 the scientific point of view
- 11 steps to structuring a science paper editors will take seriously
- IELTS Scientific Research Essay
For this first he mentioned the problem of American Negros. Some Americans believe that Negros is inferior to them and so should be segregated from them. While some believe that they should enjoy the same rights like white Americans. He says that the pre-Christians believe that if someone was suffering from any disease, it was a punishment from some goddess fora sin either by the sick person or his family or of his whole community.
But Haldane makes it clear that civilized and savage uncivilized man, health and sickness are equally parts of nature. Haldane says that modern medicine has come out with miraculous drugs but it has become very hard to apply its results in practice. With the example of diabetics Haldane remarks that diabetes can easily be controlled by injecting insulin, but they hardly take the suggestions of doctors regarding to take medicine.
Finally Haldane says that average man and woman should not be guided by false principles. Author J. Haldane was son of the noted physiologist John Scott Haldane, he began studying science as assistant to his father at the age of eight and later received formal education in the classics at Eton College and at New College, Oxford M.
In the s Haldane became a Marxist. He possessed a combination of analytic powers, literary abilities, a wide range of knowledge, and a force of personality that produced numerous discoveries in several scientific fields and proved stimulating to an entire generation of research workers. Selected Genetic Papers of J. Haldane, ed.
Dronamraju, was published in Answer the following in one sentence:- i. Give an example of how science benefits the common men and women. The common men and women are benefited by scientific applications like usage of cars, buses and motor vehicles instead of using horse drawn vehicles and for disease we are going to Doctor instead of going for superstitious things Witch, Tallish-man.
According to the essay, how does a scientist view a disease? A scientist view a disease as a part of nature. According to Haldane, what is the first step in a return to nature? According to Haldane, the first step in a return to nature is to discard clothes. Read summary of the lesson. Answer the following in words each :- i. What is the scientific point of view?
How does it help us when applied to the events of daily life? In the view of Haldane, The scientific point of view must come out of the laboratory and be applied to the events of daily life. What has already revolutionized industry, agriculture, war and medicine must be applied to the family, nation and the human race. Name the two ways in which science affects the average man or woman. Same as Ans. State how the pre-christian attitude to disease is contrasted with that of the scientist? Haldane opines that the pre-Christians believe that if someone was suffering from any disease, it was a punishment from some goddess for a sin either by the sick person or his family or of his whole community.
What are the important causes which help civilized humans to live longer than the uncivilized ones? Same as above. Why does the author feel that the discovery of drugs does not protect people very much? Who are the real enemies of man and how are they to be conquered?
Ignorance and unscientific thinking are the real enemies of man. Explain why Haldane thinks that the scientific point of view has definite advantages for civilization? Science influences the average man in two ways- its practical applications are useful to man and it affects his opinions also. Science continuously tells us we should give up smoking and consumption of liquor, and adopt walking and swimming daily activities to remain healthy.
Once we viewed these warnings skeptically, but we now have begun to understand that there is sense and logic in these warnings.
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The average man is attracted by the emotional and ethical aspects of a problem, not by the facts, whereas a scientist considers only the facts. A scientific point of view places everything and everyone on the same emotional level which is impartial and truthful. A good scientist will, like God, view and examine things impartially and truthfully, and will not have emotional considerations and pass judgments. Even though the enemies of science wish science to do both, and abuse scientists for being deaf to moral considerations, a scientist will remain such impartial that Mr.
John, Mr. Chang, Mr. Smith, the Tape Worm and the Solar System will be equal to him. A scientific point of view enables people also to adopt the same view of an impartial scientist, in analyzing things of importance to him. How has development in the science of medicine helped civilisation? Preventive medicine could be made into moral equivalent of war. While writing this section, be consistent and use the smallest number of words necessary to convey your statistics.
In this section, you interpret your findings for the reader in relation to previous research and the literature as a whole. Present your general conclusions, including an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the research and the implications of your findings.
This section is sometimes included in the last paragraph of the discussion. Explain how your research fits within your field of study, and identify areas for future research. Write a brief paragraph giving credit to any institution responsible for funding the study e. Some journals require a statement attesting that your research is original and that you have no conflicts of interest i.
This section only needs to be a sentence or two long. Here you list citation information for each source you used i. The list of references can be in alphabetical order author—date style of citation or in the order in which the sources are presented in the paper numbered citations. Follow your style guide; if no guidelines are provided, choose a citation format and be consistent.
In this optional section, you can present nonessential information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the paper. That is, if you have too much data to fit in a relatively short research paper, move anything that's not essential to this section.
2 the scientific point of view
Aside from the overall format of your paper, there are still other details to watch out for. The sections below cover how to present your terminology, equations, tables and figures, measurements, and statistics consistently based on the conventions of scientific writing. Stay consistent with the terms you use. Generally, short forms can be used once the full term has been introduced:. One way to ensure consistency is to use standard scientific terminology. You can refer to the following resources, but if you're not sure which guidelines are preferred, check with your target journal.
Whether in mathematical, scientific, or technical papers, equations follow a conventional format. Here are some tips for formatting your calculations:. Do you have any tables, graphs, or images in your research? If so, you should become familiar with the rules for referring to tables and figures in your scientific paper.
Some examples are presented below. Although every journal has slightly different formatting guidelines, most agree that the gold standard for units of measurement is the International System of Units SI. Wherever possible, use the SI. Here are some other tips for formatting units of measurement:. When presenting statistical information, you must provide enough specific information to accurately describe the relationships among your data.
Nothing is more frustrating to a reviewer than vague sentences about a variable being significant without any supporting details. The author guidelines for the journal Nature recommend that the following be included for statistical testing: the name of each statistical analysis, along with its n value; an explanation of why the test was used and what is being compared; and the specific alpha levels and P values for each test. Angel Borja, writing for Elsevier publications, described the statistical rules for article formatting as follows:.
Even though you may not look forward to the process of formatting your research paper, it's important to present your findings clearly, consistently, and professionally. With the right paper format, your chances of publication increase, and your research will be more likely to make an impact in your field.
Don't underestimate the details. They are the backbone of scientific writing and research. One last tip: Before you submit your research, consider using our academic editing service for expert help with paper formatting, editing, and proofreading. We can tailor your paper to specific journal guidelines at your request.
Joanna's passion for English literature proven by her M.
11 steps to structuring a science paper editors will take seriously
She enjoys lively discussions about plot, character, and nerdy TV shows with her husband, and she loves singing almost as much as she loves reading. Isn't music another language after all? APA style is a widely accepted editorial style used for social science papers. This article looks at what is involved in ensuring your writing adheres to APA style.
When embarking on a research paper or term paper, think of yourself as a detective. You will not only search for information, but also delve into the whys and wherefores behind the subject material, seeking to provide elucidation through your written analysis. This is the second article in a series that outlines the mechanics of doctorial dissertation writing.
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How to Format a Scientific Paper. Format Overview The four main elements of a scientific paper can be represented by the acronym IMRaD: introduction, methods, results, and discussion.
IELTS Scientific Research Essay
Now, let's go through the main sections you might have to prepare to format your paper. Cover Page On the first page of the paper, you must present the title of the paper along with the authors' names, institutional affiliations, and contact information. For example: Dr. Clara A. Scott C. Abstract In this summary of your research, you must state your subject i. Avoid using acronyms and abbreviations in the abstract, as the reader may not be familiar with them.
Use full terms instead. Keywords Below the abstract, include a list of key terms to help other researchers locate your study. Note that "keywords" is one word with no space and is followed by a colon: Keywords : paper format, scientific writing. Check the use of punctuation e. Some journals e. This aids in the classification of your research. Introduction This is the reader's first impression of your paper, so it should be clear and concise.
However, don't start too broad; keep the information relevant.
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You can use in-text citations in this section to situate your research within the body of literature. Methods This is the part of your paper that explains how the research was done. Stay consistent with the order in which information is presented e. Results Now that you've explained how you gathered your research, you've got to report what you actually found. Use headings to help the reader follow along, particularly if your data are repetitive but check whether your style guide allows you to use them.
Discussion In this section, you interpret your findings for the reader in relation to previous research and the literature as a whole. Do not repeat the information you presented in the results or the introduction unless it is necessary for a discussion of the overall implications of the research. Conclusion This section is sometimes included in the last paragraph of the discussion. Acknowledgments Write a brief paragraph giving credit to any institution responsible for funding the study e.